It’s no secret that the first decade of our new millennium, the period of 2000-2009 produced an incredible number of Boone & Crockett mule deer entries. Living in Colorado for nearly 25 years I have personally seen big buck numbers go from almost non-existent in the early 90’s to what was generally observed as a healthy abundance in the 2000’s. Colorado has always led the B&C records with total entries for mule deer. That fact is very common knowledge for serious mule deer hunters but for a few years in the mid part of the last decade, the number of entries to come from the state surprised even this group. Boone & Crockett entries for mule deer during the last decade peaked in 2004 and that was mainly due to the huge numbers of bucks to come from Colorado. Tag numbers increased and the winter of 2007/2008 had a serious impact on some of the state’s best mule deer herds and the outlook is now much different.
Sonora Mexico was another area that really received a great deal of press and attention from mule deer hunters. Many great bucks were taken in what some have described as very easy hunting circumstances. Perhaps in retrospect, this new found “Eldorado” of mule deer hunting might have seen it’s better days. Deer management is controlled by private ranch owners and outfitters as apposed to biologists and game departments and the harvest was maximized and probably exceeded in many places. There might be a few responsible outfitters reading this right now that are screaming out loud at this statement but there are enough stories of ranches leased, shot out and outfitters moving on that there is some legitimacy to this statement. Ranches that should have seen 3-4 mature bucks harvested off them were booking a dozen hunters and filling tags. Time will tell if the pressure put on the Sonora mule deer herds will have long-term effects but hunter numbers have dropped in the last five years. What might actually help bring back buck numbers in an inadvertent way is the increase of violence and desperation in Mexico. Some hunters are flat out refusing to go to Mexico and many are hesitant. Though actual incidents involving sport hunters are almost non-existent, the lawlessness and fear that is perpetrated in Mexico and the border towns will keep many hunters north of the border and build some buck age class on some areas.
In my opinion, and this is anecdotal and arm chair biology, there are some factors that have occurred in the last decade that should show up in the number of B&C entries in the last 3 years. The gas-drilling boom on Wyoming’s mule deer winter range, the severe and devastating winter of 2007/2008 in the Rocky Mountain West, and finally the economic downturn coupled with the possible over harvest of mature mule deer in parts of Sonora. There are many variables that will play into these numbers, which makes the validity of these observations null in the true scientific mind. Tag numbers, weather during hunting seasons, and other factors indirectly come into play. That being said the purpose of this inquiry and article is simply to gauge what had happened in the last decade to where we are in the last 3 years. Where are big mule trending right now and where should a serious mule deer hunter focus his sights on B&C class mule deer?
There is a lot that goes into producing B&C mule deer and in my opinion, the number one factor in producing B&C bucks is for a deer to get age. Over-hunting bucks leads to a cumulative affect of less older age class animals and hence less of a mathematical chance of there being a record-class buck in a given herd. Genetics play a part to an extent but habitat and age play a more dominant role in producing big deer. When you limit harvest in an area with good genetic potential and great habitat, mule deer can get big and old. This was well illustrated in Colorado when buck tags were dramatically limited in 1999 and 5 years later B&C mule deer entries in Colorado were skyrocketing. Not every area can or will produce B&C class deer but in the areas that do, the number of entries is in my mind a direct correlation to the overall presence of mature bucks in a given area. The argument can be made that hunters pursue higher scoring mature deer with more intensity than lower scoring mature bucks that are genetically inferior according to B&C entry standards. There has been a suggestion by some that we as hunters are diluting the gene pool by focusing on B&C criteria bucks. I would argue that there is a very, very small percentage of the hunting population that operates this way. Most hunters are looking for a big buck first and score is less of an incentive to pull the trigger. For example a mature 28” buck with huge backs, crab-claw fronts and short beams is going to score in the low 180’s versus a more balanced 28” buck with long main beams and a good inside spread. Standing side by side, the big back fork buck will have much more eye appeal and is the buck most hunters would probably take. It’s the wow-factor and wall appeal that inspires hunters first and true score conscious hunters are a rare breed. Sure people seem to ask all to often “What does he score?” but I do believe that is a relatively innocuous question driven by our big buck crowd/culture and an attempt to confirm the subconscious score guess that the inquiring hunter has already estimated in his mind.
Off to www.boone-crockett.org I went to see what I could find on mule deer B&C buck trends and to see what suspicions were confirmed or debunked. What I saw was an overall and somewhat alarming decline in overall B&C mule deer entries. Are the modern glory years of the 2000’s gone now? The numbers are starting to suggest just that. Basically, there were a combined 71 typical and non-typical mule deer entries in 2000 with an increase in entries that peaked at 139 in 2004 and have been declining to a number of 62 in 2011. The graph line is pretty steady up and down except for the year 2002 which showed only 49 entries. In 2002, the Rocky Mountain West was impacted by the worst drought in decades and might possibly be the reason for this anomalous year for B&C entries. This idea was re-enforced when I looked at both elk and pronghorn entries for 2002 and saw a noticeable decrease in entries from both species in that year.
Some dramatic stats were also seen such as Colorado accounting for 56 mule deer entries alone in 2004, the peak year for mule deer entries during that time period. Considering there were only 62 entries from all of North America last year, that really puts into perspective how off-the-charts the deer hunting was in Colorado in the last decade. What was also interesting was Sonora Mexico having 13 entries in 2006, more than double any other year and steadily tailing off to a single entry from 2011. Wyoming was another great historical producer of B&C mule deer and this state has also seen better days. The three-year period of 1999, 2000 and 2001 produced 39 entries for Wyoming while there was only a single entry from last year. Natural gas drilling and development in Western Wyoming’s winter range might have had an impact but the human population growth in the area caused by industry workers moving to Western Wyoming, and the ensuing increase in resident deer hunters who aren’t limited in number at all might have had as much or more of an impact. Additionally the birth of the modern mule deer videos started in Western Wyoming in the late 90’s with rock-star bucks such as Morty and Popeye fueled the fires and imaginations of many ardent mule deer hunters. Serious deer hunters came to Western Wyoming and hit the country hard and the great number of B&C class bucks taken then might evidence this. Wyoming’s deer were loved to death.
Another area that jumped out from a statistical standpoint is New Mexico’s Rio Arriba County. It is truly stunning how many B&C bucks came from Rio Arriba County in the 2000’s. Most serious mule deer hunters are aware that Rio Arriba County is home to the Jicarilla Indian Reservation. Aggressive predator control and seriously limited deer hunting has produced the best quality deer hunting of the West during the decade. Mule Deer hunting is not cheap on the Jicarilla and even at the high cost there is still much more demand than supply. In a ten-year period starting in 2000, Rio Arriba County produced 48 typical and 8 non-typical mule deer entries. An truly unbelievable number relative to the size of the area but keeping in mind that the Jicarilla Indian reservation has some of the most tightly controlled and managed mule deer hunting in the West.
Rio Arriba County produced more than double the number of B&C bucks as the next closest county, Eagle County Colorado with 27 total entries in the same time period. That is even more impressive when you consider Eagle County blows away most other counties in the West for mule deer entries. Shockingly, there was not a single entry from Eagle County last year, which was the first time that has not occurred in 17 years! This is further evidence in my mind that the winter of 2007/2008 has had a devastating impact on some mule deer herds in the West. Colorado’s unit 44 has been widely touted as one of the top units in Colorado for years but for those of you sitting on a dozen or more points and applying here, the trend shows that you might be setting yourself up for a disappointment. Numbers don’t lie.
Some assumptions were confirmed with the research like the famous Arizona Strip and Kiabab being consistent producers. Utah has decent entry representation from those units with quality management and Lincoln County, Nevada is still producing B&C bucks. Another stunning number was the sheer dominance of Saskatchewan, Canada in total B&C entries. Consistent production of monster mule deer is a hallmark of this Canadian province with 67 typical and 31 non-typical entries during the 2000’s. A relatively low human population and no non-resident mule deer hunting means Saskatchewan bucks are getting OLD! An almost 2-1 ration of typical to non-typical entries is also an incredible stat and is unmatched in any other state, or county. This is double the rate of Colorado where B&C deer have a 4-1 ration typical to non-typical. All this means nothing other than eye candy photos in magazines if you aren’t a Saskatchewan resident other than one key fact; mule deer get really big if you let them get old and keep the hunting pressure down.
Along with deer getting old and a relatively conservative management plan that is required to achieve this, we must consider this. We are living in an information age where there aren’t any secrets in hunting big mule deer. There seems to be a 2-5 year lag from when an area gets hot and the pressure that is put on big bucks by us as hunters. We saw it in Wyoming. We saw it in Mexico and in Colorado. There are many driven big buck hunters who play the points game in every western state and aren’t afraid to put out the time and money that it takes to kill B&C class bucks. Optics are flawless and guns are built to give hunters advantages that 20 years ago only belonged to a very small handloading, benchrest crowd. There are better clothes, packs, boots and every piece of gear that a hunter might want or need is available at high quality. 25 years ago the optics I used were better than average but don’t hold a candle to my Swarovski tripod mounted 10x42s and my Swarovski HD spotting scope. We are better hunters when we pay attention to others success and there is plenty of good hunters who are ready and willing to share tips and advice. In today’s day and age, I wouldn’t want to be a mule deer buck hoping to get old.
One thing that is apparent right now is that there aren’t any dominant hotspots for big mule deer other than Saskatchewan. Colorado is still out producing other western states for B&C mule deer but the latest edition of Fair Chase magazine shows a changed face of mule deer hunting from the last decade. Entries from Eagle and Gunnison counties dominated the record book 6-8 years ago and now there are single entries from different units all over the state. The Henry Mountains of Utah have kicked out numbers of great bucks the last few years but drawing a tag there is more difficult than drawing a sheep tag in most states. There is no doubt that the most conservatively managed units in the West are producing the best bucks. While game managers should not manage to try and produce B&C class bucks, the simple fact of there being B&C class bucks as a result of good age class representation is encouraging to hunters.
Let us hope that the last couple years are just an anomaly and that the future holds more and better deer hunting opportunities. This sounds good on the surface but without a concerted effort by state wildlife agencies to manage for good age class representation, mule deer herds and buck numbers will probably continue to drop. Anyone with common sense can look at the graph chart for B&C entries in the West and probably predict within a reasonable degree of accuracy what the next 3 years hold for us. Looking at the trends and best counties you can see your best chance at a B&C buck is one of the tightly managed units in the West or by simply getting lucky through hard hunting in traditionally great buck areas. Good luck and good hunting.